Sauropodomorpha

   Sauropodomorpha is composed of the sauropods and their basal relatives, known informally as prosauropods, a broad group of, in general, unaccountably poorly-known early long-necked herbivores. Because a "prosauropod" was almost certainly the ancestor of the sauropods, I do not consider Prosauropoda to be a natural, monophyletic (including all descendants) group, and reserve the term as an informal name for this assortment of LTr-EJ dinosaurs that aren't sauropods but aren't members of another dinosaur group either. A certain subset may well form a small Prosauropoda, though.
    Again, prosauropods are probably the least-understood dinosaurs (although this is shifting to the basal ornithopods). Part of this stems from the fact that all known prosauropods are older than about 180 million years, reducing the completeness of their record, and part of this stems from the fact that prosauropods are a unique taxonomic quagmire. While there are certain dinosaurs (Megalosaurus, Iguanodon, Trachodon) that have become black holes, no other section of dinosaurs as a whole has gone through so much screwiness. Plateosaurus, for example, has over a dozen possible synonyms, Massospondylus carinatus eleven, Euskelosaurus another half-dozen, and Anchisaurus has gone through three different generic names. On the flip side, Thecodontosaurus has hosted at least thirteen species. Some of the better known taxa are known from over twenty partial specimens, though.
    Aside from their general appearance (long neck, small head, bipedal to somewhat quadrupedal), they are best known for their wicked thumb claws, probably powerful defensive tools. They were once thought to be carnivores, due mostly to mixing of shed theropod teeth with prosauropod remains, but this has been show to be false, although some could have been omnivorous, as suggested by animal remains within the skeleton of one find. Our understanding of prosauropod stance has evolved from the classic tripod (hind legs and tail), to mostly quadrupeds, and now to almost all bipeds.
    Our knowledge of basal sauropodomorphs is currently going through a major revision, particularly as it relates to the taxonomy of animals from the late Triassic of Europe and South Africa, and to the ancestry of sauropods and if there is anything that would make a Prosauropoda besides Plateosaurus and a few of its best friends. At some point, Prosauropod Pinball will settle down, but until then, don't get too attached to anything here. (Really, basal dinosaurs as a whole are very unsettled right now, but this is where all the published fun is at the moment.) 
    Here is the latest revision of Sauropodomorpha, now with no meaningful Prosauropoda. Massopoda is all sauropodomorphs closer to Saltasaurus than Plateosaurus. Sauropoda covers everyone past Melanorosaurus, so it's just like how it was when it was, except completely different.

<--Sauropodomorpha
     |--Eoraptor
     |--Pampadromaeus
     |--Panphagia
     |--+--Chromogisaurus
     |    `-- Saturnalia
     `--+--Pantydraco
          `--+--Thecodontosaurus 
               `--+--Nambalia
                    `--+--Efraasia
                         `--+--Plateosauravus
                               `--+--Ruehleia
                                    `--+--Plateosauridae
                                         |    |--Jaklapallisaurus
                                         |    |--Plateosaurus
                                         |    `--Unaysaurus
                                         `--Massopoda
                                              |--Riojasauridae
                                              |    |--Eucnemesaurus
         
                                    |    `--Riojasaurus
                                              `--+--Gryponyx
                                                   |--+--Ignavusaurus
                                                   |    `--Saharsaurus
                                                   `--+--Massospondylidae
                                                        |     |--+--Massospondylus
                                                        |     |    `--+--Adeopapposaurus
                                                        |     |         `--Leyesaurus
                                                        |     `--+--Coloradisaurus
                                                        |          |--Glacialisaurus
    
                                                   |          `--Lufengosaurus
                                                        `--+--Jingshanosaurus
                                                             `--Anchisauria
                                                                  |--Anchisaurus
                                                                  |--Seitaad
                                                                  |--Yunnanosaurus
                                                                  `--Sauropodiformes
                                                                       |--Mussasaurus
                                                                       `--+--Aardonyx
                                                                            `--+--Leonerasaurus
                                                                                 `--+--+--Camelotia
                                                                                      |     `--Melanorosaurus
                                                                                      `-->Sauropoda

Sauropodomorpha to Plateosauridae: The most basal handful of these taxa have unstable positions, and at least some of them could be closer to theropods.
    With the demolition of Prosauropoda as a separate group, the following animals cover a wide range of sizes, times, places, and probably habits. If you were dealing with a book published in the 1980s or before, a chunk of this selection would have been described as "thecodontosaurs", the smallest and most basal of the sauropodomorphs.

Taxon or Taxa: Time/Place: Comments:
Eoraptor lunensis Sereno, Forster, Rogers, and Monetta, 1993 middle Carnian (LTr) of Argentina This small, very basal animal is based on an almost complete skeleton, with some additional material. It appears to have some variability in its teeth (heterodonty), suggesting it came from ancestors who were omnivorous, or was itself omnivorous. The skull has a broad contact between roof bones in front of the eyes, like in prosauropods. There are only two sacrals. Depending on the paper you've picked up, it was a basal theropod, basal sauropodomorph, basal saurischian, and so on. Although strictly speaking the last is the most accurate, it's been moving from theropod to sauropodomorph since its discovery.
Pampadromaeus barberenai Cabreira, Schultz, Bittencourt, Soares, Fortier, Silva, and Langer, 2011 late Carnian (LTr) of Brazil Pampadromaeus is a basal saurischian leaning to the sauropodomorph side of things. It is known from a partial disarticulated skeleton that includes most of the torso and limbs, part of the tail, and a partial skull and lower jaw. It is big-headed, as these basal sauropodomorph-ish animals go, and the tip of the snout is expanded ventrally, giving it hanging (and bitey-looking) premaxillae.
Panphagia protos Martínez and Alcober 2009 late Carnian (LTr) of Argentina Panphagia pushes back the sauropodomorph family tree a little farther, to a time when they looked a bit like Dino of Flintstones fame with an Eoraptor's head. The teeth at the front of the jaws were quite long and pointed, becoming less offensive farther down the line. Most of the skeleton is known, with the exception of the arms and most of the legs. The name Panphagia, as those of you who can at least fake your way through the translation know (or who have the article, of course), is a reference to its proposed omnivorous habits.
Chromogisaurus novasi Ezcurra, 2010 late Carnian (LTr) of Argentina Chromogisaurus is known mostly from a pelvis and partial hindlimbs.
Saturnalia tupiniquim Langer, Abdula, Richter, and Benton, 1999 ?earliest Norian (LTr) of Brazil This animal was classified as the most basal sauropodomorph known when first described. It is based on three partial skeletons representing most of the body, and is roughly a contemporary of the Ischigualasto (i.e. Herrerasaurus) fauna. At about a meter and a half long, it was a small prosauropod. Material from Zimbabwe may be referable.
Pantydraco caducus Galton, Yates, and Kermack, 2007 (originally Thecodontosaurus caducus Yates, 2003) Norian-Rhaetian (LTr) of Wales Its remains known since 1952, and occasionally illustrated (especially the skull), Pantydraco is based on a good portion of the front end of one juvenile individual, plus miscellaneous other remains. Its remains provided the modern image of Thecodontosaurus. The skull is rather like Eoraptor in gross characteristics. The name comes from Pant-y-ffynnon, referring to the quarry where the bones were discovered.
Thecodontosaurus antiquus (genus after Riley and Stutchbury, 1836, species after Morris, 1843)  Norian-Rhaetian (LTr) of England Thecodontosaurus had long been the most primitive sauropodomorph for which we have good remains, comprising at least 13 individuals. It was also a long-time wastebasket, but most of the cobwebs have been cleared away. It was once thought that the majority of the remains were destroyed in WWII, but it was recently discovered that some had been saved in other institutions, and restudy is underway. It may have been dimorphic.
Agrosaurus macgillivrayi Seeley, 1891 was once thought to be the only known Australian LTr dinosaur. However, it turned out that the material it was based on was mislabeled, actually from England, and belonged to Thecodontosaurus.
Nambalia roychowdhurii Novas, Ezcurra, Chatterjee, and Kutty, 2011 late Norian-earliest Rhaetian (LTr) of India This basal sauropodomorph is based on a right ilium and most of a left leg (minus the foot). Partial postcrania from two other individuals have been referred to it as well, adding hand, foot, caudal, and additional pelvic bones to the picture.
Efraasia minor (Huene, 1907-08 [originally Teratosaurus]) mid Norian (LTr) of Germany Efraasia has been resurrected after being considered a juvenile Sellosaurus during the 1980s and '90s. It is somewhat more basal than Plateosaurus (to which Sellosaurus has been referred), and is moderately sized (up to 6 m long; it used to be considered a small dinosaur because the best remains were juvenile).
Plateosauravus cullingworthi Huene, 1932 (species after Haughton, 1924 [originally Plateosaurus]) early Norian (LTr) of South Africa This is what should be used for the majority of the "Euskelosaurus" material. It was a large but gracile basal sauropodomorph, and is known from partial skeletons.  It was once thought to be the same as Melanorosaurus, but this was disproved based on the femora of the two: Plateosauravus (Euskelosaurus) has a femur which is bent in rear view, while that of Melanorosaurus is straight. Its braincase may have been unusually primitive. Juvenile material is apparently known as well. 
Ruehleia bedheimensis Galton, 2001 late Norian (LTr) of Germany Ruehleia is a new basal sauropodomorph, originally referred to Plateosaurus plieningeri, based on much of a skeleton (excepting most importantly the skull and hind feet). Another specimen is referred. The type was originally wall-mounted in the same castle as Liliensternus. It was a good-sized prosauropod, in the 8 meter long range.

Sauropodomorpha i.s., the "somewhat better known taxa" division: There are literally dozens of taxa based on cruddy remains (we're not just talking single bones, here, necessarily; we could be talking parts of single bones) that have been in the past synonymized with Euskelosaurus, Plateosaurus, and Massospondylus, but which are not currently regarded as such, mostly because they're too cruddy to be sure. They are to be found in the table following this one, which holds the sauropodomorphs of uncertain position that are well-defined. Membership of both tables is subject to change.  

Taxon or Taxa: Time/Place: Comments:
Arcusaurus pereirabdalorum Yates, Bonnan, and Neveling, 2011 ?Pliensbachian (EJ) of South Africa Arcusaurus is known from a partial juvenile skull, with some assorted cranial and postcranial remains from the same site referred to it. It appears to have been similar to Thecodontosaurus and its ilk, and may be a late-surviving representative of the very basal stripe of sauropodomorphs, with the caveat that it is known only from juvenile remains. 
Asylosaurus yalensis Galton, 2007 Rhaetian (LTr) of England Asylosaurus was named for the Thecodontosaurus material that was protected from WWII bombing by being at Yale, having been brought there by O.C. Marsh several decades before. It has a distinctive upper arm.
Chuxiongosaurus lufengensis Lü J., Kobayashi, Li T., and Zhong S., 2010 EJ of China Chuxiongosaurus is based on a nearly complete skull, and is described as a sauropod more basal than Anchisaurus. Given the ongoing difficulties of sauropodomorph classification, it is not feasible to do much more with this genus without the paper in hand (and probably not much more feasible with it!).
Euskelosaurus browni (?N.D.) Huxley, 1866 early Norian (LTr) of Lesotho, South Africa, and ?Zimbabwe This sauropodomorph is relatively famous as a token prosauropod in detailed kids' books, but is based on questionable material. The best material has been referred to a variety of other things, including Plateosauravus cullingworthi, Eucnemesaurus fortis, and the remains now known as the type of Antetonitrus ingenipes.
"Gyposaurus" sinensis Yang, 1941 (?Lufengosaurus) Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of China Usually tossed off as a juvenile of Lufengosaurus (or as another species of Anchisaurus; there was a period of time in the '80s when Gyposaurus species found their way into the clutches of the sneaky beast, but then ended up being referred elsewhere), "Gyposaurus" sinensis has been cropping up in cladograms lately, suggesting that something is afoot. It is based on partial remains from several individuals.
Lamplughsaura dharmaramensis Kutty, Chatterjee, Galton, and Upchurch, 2007 Hettangian (EJ) of India Lamplughsaura was a large basal sauropodomorph or basal sauropod (~10 m long), with a robust quadrupedal build. It is known from a nearly complete skeleton and the partial skeletons of four other individuals. One point of interest is that the thumb claw is not particularly curved, although still large. The skeletal restoration provided suggests an animal along the lines of Plateosaurus but with longish limbs, short caudal neural spines, and very long chevrons.
Mussaurus patagonicus Bonaparte and Vince, 1979 Norian (LTr) of Argentina Mussaurus is famous in the pop dinosaur books for being known from hatchling skeletons. The genus name, meaning "mouse lizard," references the diminutive size of the earliest described material. Of course, the actual animal did not stay that size, and there is a fair amount of subadult and adult material as well, distinct from and more derived than the contemporary Coloradisaurus.
Pradhania gracilis Kutty, Chatterjee, Galton, and Upchurch, 2007 Sinemurian (EJ) of India A smallish (~4 m long) basal sauropodomorph, Pradhania is known from a partial skull and hand and a few verts. It may be a massospondylid.
Xixiposaurus suni Sekiya, 2010 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of China Xixiposaurus is known from much of a skeleton including most of the skull, 20 presacral and 5 caudal vertebrae, portions of the pectoral girdle, most of the arms (minus the hands), and the right pelvis and leg. It was described as a very derived Chinese prosauropod.
Yimenosaurus youngi Bai vide Bai, Yang, and Wang, 1990 EJ of China Known from the remains of several individuals, Yimenosaurus has an unusually deep skull, like a basal sauropod's. Most of the skeleton except the arms and lower legs are known.

Sauropodomorpha i.s., the "cruddy past synonyms of Euskelosaurus, Massospondylus, Plateosaurus, and Thecodontosaurus division," mostly: In general, you can guess what was the proposed synonym by the place and time. Euskelosaurus covers the late Triassic of South Africa, Massospondylus the early Jurassic of the same area, and Plateosaurus the late Triassic of Europe. If you wait a few years, a lot of them probably will be referred back to a better-known genus, but the dust still needs to settle. It'll get figured out eventually.

Taxon or Taxa: Time/Place: Comments:
Aetonyx palustris (N.D.) Broom, 1911 (?Massospondylus) Hettangian (EJ) of South Africa Aetonyx is based on most of an arm and two hands, some verts, part of a tibia, and most of a foot.
Aristosaurus erectus Hoepen, 1920 (?Massospondylus) Sinemurian (EJ) of South Africa Aristosaurus is based on most of a skeleton of a juvenile missing the majority of the head and some portions of the forelimbs and scapulae.
Dimodosaurus poligniensis (?N.D.) Pidancet and Chopard, 1862 late Norian (LTr) of France This is based on the hip region and hindlimb of a plateosaur-like animal.
Dromicosaurus gracilis (?N.D.) Hoepen, 1920 (?Massospondylus) Hettangian (EJ) of South Africa Dromicosaurus is represented by a cervical, caudals, fragments of the humerus and radius, pubes, partial ischia, a femur, and part of a foot, from an animal in the large Massospondylus range. 
"Euskelosaurus" africanus (N.D.) Haughton, 1924 early Norian (LTr) of South Africa This is based on verts and a partial hip and hindlimb.
Fulengia youngi (N.D.) Carroll and Galton, 1977 (?Lufengosaurus) Sinemurian (EJ) of China Originally described as a lizard, this is instead an indeterminate juvenile basal sauropodomorph, possibly the same as Lufengosaurus.
Gigantoscelus molengraafi (N.D.) Hoepen, 1916 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of South Africa This is a dubious basal sauropodomorph based on a partial femur.
Gresslyosaurus ingens (N.D.) Rütimeyer, 1856 Rhaetian (LTr) of Switzerland This longtime possible synonym of Plateosaurus is known from a partial sacrum, caudals, a metacarpal, and a partial hindlimb.
"Gresslyosaurus" plieningeri (N.D.) Huene, 1907-08 late Norian (LTr) of Germany "G." plieningeri is based on a partial skeleton including a skull.
"Gryponyx": "G." taylori (N.D.) Haughton, 1924 Hettangian (EJ) of South Africa This is based on a pelvic girdle and sacrals.
"G." transvaalensis (N.D.) Broom, 1912 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of South Africa This is an indeterminate basal sauropodomorph based on a phalanx and partial metatarsal.
Gyposaurus capensis (?N.D.) Broom, 1911 Sinemurian (EJ) of South Africa Gyposaurus (no, not Gryposaurus) is based on a partial skeleton from the shoulders to the beginning of the tail. It had been referred briefly to Anchisaurus during the early 1980s, at the tail end of the period just after the acceptance of plate tectonics when it was common to make intercontinental dinosaur connections (see Dryosaurus, Camptosaurus, and Iguanodon), although usually it has been stuck in Massospondylus.
Hortalotarsus skirtopodus (N.D.) Seeley, 1894 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of South Africa Hortalotarsus has been mixed up with Gyposaurus, Anchisaurus, and Thecodontosaurus at various times in the past, when it seems to have garnered more attention than a partial tibia and foot should have had. For the most part recently, it has been put into Massospondylus
Leptospondylus capensis (N.D.) Owen, 1895 Hettangian (EJ) of South Africa You get two caudal centra. I'd say use them wisely, but they were blown up in WWII.
"Lufengosaurus" magnus Yang, 1947 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of China "L." magnus is usually assumed to be a synonym of L. huenei, as based on large individuals.
"Massospondylus": "M." browni Seeley, 1895 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of South Africa This species, sometimes mixed up with Thecodontosaurus (unless T. browni had a different type, and I'm getting contradictory reports there), is based on two cervicals, two dorsals, three caudals, two femora, and a partial foot. Some assembly required, returns not accepted.
"M." harriesi (N.D.) Broom, 1911 Hettangian (EJ) of South Africa This is based on partial fore and hindlimbs (including a good hand and a foot).
"M." hislopi (N.D.) Lydekker, 1890 early Norian (LTr) of India Unusual for its locality, this is an indeterminate basal sauropodomorph based on verts.
"M." schwarzi (N.D.) Haughton, 1924 Hettangian (EJ) of South Africa This indeterminate basal sauropodomorph is based on a partial hindlimb and sacrum.
"Melanorosaurus" thabanensis Gauffrey, 1993 Hettangian (EJ) of Lesotho Known from a femur, this species began as the youngest "melanorosaurid" known from good remains (some material assigned to the Chinese EJ Sinosaurus may also be "melanorosaurid"). However, doubt has been cast on its identity, and it may be a sauropod instead.
Orosaurus capensis (N.D.) Huxley, 1867 (species name added by Lydekker, 1889 [originally Orinosaurus])  early Norian (LTr) of South Africa Another dubious basal sauropodomorph, based on a partial tibia, this is one of the many once tossed into Euskelosaurus.  About the name: Huxley apparently left off a species name, which Lydekker supplied when he renamed it Orinosaurus on the mistaken belief that Orosaurus was preoccupied by Oreosaurus, a fossil animal associated with cream-centered chocolate wafer cookies (actually a lizard of some kind).
"Pachysaurus": Huene, 1907-08/Fitzinger, 1843 (Pachysauriscus; ?Plateosaurus) "P." ajax (N.D.) (type) Huene, 1907-08 late Norian (LTr) of Germany The species of "Pachysaurus" (also known as Pachysauriscus) are mute reminders of the impulse that seized researchers to name German sauropodomorphs at every opportunity. Three of them are based on partial postcranial skeletons that are probably just individuals of Plateosaurus, while "P." giganteus is represented by partial fibulae misidentified as metatarsals. 
"P." giganteus (N.D.) Huene, 1932
  "P." magnus (N.D.) Huene, 1907-08
"P." wetzelianus (N.D.) Huene, 1932
Pachyspondylus orpenii (N.D.) Owen, 1854 Hettangian (EJ) of South Africa See Leptospondylus (except in this case we don't know what kind of verts they were before they were blown up).
Pachysuchus imperfectus (N.D.) Yang, 1951 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of China Pachysuchus is known only from a fragment of the upper jaw. It was originally described as a phytosaur, a type of long-snouted reptile later shamelessly plagiarized by gharials and some other crocodilians. This assignment made it a curiosity, as there is otherwise very little evidence for phytosaurs persisting into the Early Jurassic. However, restudy indicates that the holotype actually came from a sauropodomorph. 
"Plateosaurus":  (?Plateosaurus) "P." erlenbergiensis (?N.D.) Huene, 1907-08 late Norian (LTr) of Germany Another possible species of Plateosaurus, this one is based on a partial skull, girdles, and limbs.
"P." reiningeri (N.D.) Huene, 1907-08 late Norian (LTr) of Germany This basal sauropodomorph may be the same as Plateosaurus, but is too poorly known to be certain. It is based on most of a skeleton.
"P." stormbergensis (N.D.) Broom, 1915 early Norian (LTr) of South Africa Based on a femur, metacarpal, pubis, and verts, this animal was once referred to Euskelosaurus.
Tawasaurus minor (N.D.) Yang, 1982 (?Lufengosaurus) Sinemurian (EJ) of China This indeterminate basal sauropodomorph may be a juvenile Lufengosaurus.
"Teratosaurus" trossingensis (N.D.) Huene 1907-08 mid Norian (LTr) of Germany This is a dubious basal sauropodomorph once referred to Sellosaurus based on a tail and hindlimbs.
"Thecodontosaurus":  "T." dubius (?N.D.) Haughton, 1924 Sinemurian (EJ) of South Africa "T." dubius is based on most of a skeleton, so it may in fact not be dubious.
"T." minor (N.D.) Haughton, 1918 early Norian (LTr) of S. Africa This small indeterminate basal sauropodomorph, based on a tibia, cervical, and ischium, may be a late "thecodontosaur."
"T." hermannianus (N.D.) Huene, 1907-08 mid Norian (LTr) of Germany Based on a partial maxilla, this animal is clearly a basal sauropodomorph of some type, but the material is too poor to define it any farther.
"Thotobolosaurus mabeatae" (N.N.) Ellenberger, 1970 ?early Norian (LTr) of Lesotho This undescribed basal sauropodomorph may be a melanorosaurid.
"Yunnanosaurus" youngi Lü J., Li T., Zhong S., Azuma, Fujita, Dong Z., and Ji Q., 2007 Aalenian-Bajocian (MJ) of China "Y." youngi is based on a vertebral column and pelvis, and has the honor of being the latest-known "prosauropod," as well as among the largest.
"Zanclodon":  "Z." bavaricus (N.D.) Fraas, 1894 late Norian (LTr) of Germany This is a basal sauropodomorph based on 2 verts and the distal end of a tibia. It could be the same as Plateosaurus.
"Z. quenstadti" (N.N.) Huene, 1905 late Norian (LTr) of Germany This basal sauropodomorph is based on cervicals, dorsals, a sacrum, pelvic material, and most of the limbs. Like a lot of the animals here, it could be the same as Plateosaurus.

Plateosauridae:

Taxon or Taxa: Time/Place: Comments:
Jaklapallisaurus asymmetrica Novas, Ezcurra, Chatterjee, and Kutty, 2011   Jaklapallisaurus is a small plateosaurid known from a couple of vertebrae and most of the right leg.
Plateosaurus: Meyer, 1837 (including Sellosaurus Huene, 1907-08) P. engelhardti (type) Meyer, 1837 mid Norian-?Rhaetian (LTr) of Germany, Greenland, France, Sweden, and Switzerland One of the most common and best known dinosaurs, Plateosaurus wasn't always so well-known. For many years its remains were scattered among a long list of prosauropods long forgotten, the most prominent being Gresslyosaurus Rütimeyer (1856). However, studies in the last thirty years have brought this taxon back. It is now generally known as a prototypical prosauropod, with over 100 partial to complete skeletons and ten skulls known for it. However, new research points to the necessity of reorganizing the known material. Galton has presented the argument that P. longiceps represents the famous Trossingen plateosaur, although researchers in Germany dispute this.
P. gracilis (Huene, 1907-08 [originally Sellosaurus]) mid Norian (LTr) of Germany "Sellosaurus" apparently actually consists of two distinct taxa, one a more basal sauropodomorph which should be called Efraasia minor, the other a medium-sized (4-6 m long) species of Plateosaurus.
Unaysaurus tolentinoi Leal, Azevedo, Kellner, and Da Rosa, 2004 Norian (LTr) of Brazil Unaysaurus is based on a partial skeleton recovered in 1998 from a road construction site. The skeleton is partially articulated and includes a skull, lower jaw, and partial postcranium. It is described as bipedal, around 2.5 meters long, and possibly close to Plateosaurus.

Massopoda:

Taxon or Taxa: Time/Place: Comments:
Gryponyx africanus Broom, 1911 (?Massospondylus) Hettangian (EJ) of South Africa Gryponyx is based on verts, both hands, a pelvis, and hindlimbs.
Ignavusaurus rachelis Knoll, 2010 (?Massospondylus) ?Hettangian (EJ) of Lesotho Ignavusaurus is known from a partial articulated skeleton from an individual perhaps less than a year old, with the torso, anterior tail, and hindlimb well-represented, the shoulders largely absent, and the skull present but very fragmented. It may represent a specimen of one of the two Massospondylus species. 
Sarahsaurus aurifontanalis Rowe, Sues, and Reisz, 2010 Sinemurian-mid Pliensbachian (EJ) of Arizona You may remember Sarahsaurus as the Arizona Massospondylus (when all else fails with prosauropods, always compare to Massospondylus). There's quite a bit more known for this animal than the skull that occasionally surfaced in the years before description: the type is most of the skeleton, and there are significant chunks of two other individuals. Interestingly, it shows up as a quite basal sauropodomorph, a basal sauropod, or in between, depending on the phylogenetic matrix used. Given the quality of material, this probably speaks more to our incomplete knowledge of our prosauropod friends. The results also show the three named diagnostic North American basal sauropodomorphs (Anchisaurus, Sarahsaurus, and Seitaad) in distinct, well-separated positions, indicating that this wasn't a local radiation of closely related forms. 
Jingshanosaurus xinwaensis Zhang and Yang, 1995 Hettangian-Pliensbachian (EJ) of China Jingshanosaurus may be a sauropodomorph or a basal sauropod. For an early dinosaur, it was good-sized, upwards of thirty feet long. Its describers suggested it might have been an omnivore, consuming mollusks and fish as well as plants.

Riojasauridae:

Taxon or Taxa: Time/Place: Comments:
Eucnemesaurus fortis Hoepen, 1920 early Norian (LTr) of South Africa Eucnemesaurus is another lost name from the depths of prosauropod taxonomy limbo, recently brought back after much obscurity. It is based on a fragmentary partial skeleton, and is the same as erstwhile giant herrerasaurid Aliwalia rex Galton, 1985 (which was based on a partial femur, not anything distinctly meat-eaterish, although to be fair a toothy maxilla was thought to go to it as well, so there may well have been a really big archosaurian carnivore in the area).
Riojasaurus incertus Bonaparte, 1969 late Norian (LTr) of Argentina Traditionally considered to be the best-known "melanorosaurid", Riojasaurus has over twenty partial skeletons and one skull, the only one known for a "melanorosaurid", referred to it. However, new research indicates that it is a more basal animal, unlike Melanorosaurus.

Massospondylidae: Unnamed possible massospondyls are known from Arizona (at least some of the old Ammosaurus cf. major stuff) and Nova Scotia (coincidentally enough, also once assigned to Ammosaurus).

Taxon or Taxa: Time/Place: Comments:
Massospondylus:
Owen, 1854
M. carinatus (type) Owen, 1854 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of Lesotho, South Africa, and Zimbabwe One of the best-known prosauropods, Massospondylus is known from a wealth of African material. Some North and South American bones have been referred to it as well, including a well-preserved skull from the Sinemurian-mid Pliensbachian (EJ) Kayenta Formation of Arizona (now Sarahsaurus), and material from Argentina (now Adeopapposaurus), while some Navajo Sandstone [late Sinemurian-Pliensbachian {EJ}] material once assigned to Ammosaurus [=Anchisaurus] also appears to have "massospondyl" affinities. However, recent study of the South African skulls indicates that the Kayenta skull belongs to something else. The African skulls are characterized by relatively large eyes and a shortening and deepening of the region in front of them, proportions that are quite distinctive. The skull is frankly kind of short, squat, and blunt.
M. kaalae
is based on a skull, and raises the question of what else may be lurking in the dozens of specimens assigned to Massospondylus.
Nearly hatched embryos assigned to Massospondylus show typically juvenile big head and eyes, but also have a clearly quadrupedal stance and lack teeth. The lack of teeth suggests they would have been fed by their parents for a period of time after hatching. Also, as the authors note, the stance suggests that quadrupedality in sauropods came from retention of juvenile characteristics (most basal sauropodomorphs could probably go bipedal for at least a short time if the mood struck them), as has also been suggested with some of the skull anatomy.
M. kaalae Barrett, 2009 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of South Africa
Adeopapposaurus mognai Martínez, 2009 EJ of Argentina Adeopapposaurus represents what had been reported as Massospondylus fossils from Argentina in the early 2000s. It's known from enough material to get a very good picture of the skeleton; the type has a skull and most of the skeleton up to the proximal tail, and three other partial skeletons take care of most of the rest. The tips of the upper and lower jaw may have had keratinous beaks.
Leyesaurus marayensis Apaldetti, Martinez, Alcober, and Pol, 2011 LTr and/or EJ of Argentina Leyesaurus is a massospondyl-type sauropodomorph represented by a skull, most of the neck, and some odds and ends (a couple of caudals, partial pectoral girdle and humerus, chunks of the lower pelvic girdle bones, and a partial foot).
Coloradisaurus brevis Lambert, 1983 (originally Coloradia brevis Bonaparte, 1978) late Norian (LTr) of Argentina Based on a skull and ?postcranial remains, Coloradisaurus has sometimes been considered the adult form of Mussaurus, but this is unlikely.
Glacialisaurus hammeri N. Smith and Pol, 2007 EJ of Antarctica The third named Antarctic dinosaur, Glacialisaurus is a massospondyl-type sauropodomorph, close to Coloradisaurus and particularly Lufengosaurus. It is based on an ankle and partial foot, with a referred femur. 
Lufengosaurus huenei Yang, 1941 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of China Possibly closely related to Plateosaurus, this prosauropod is known from over thirty partial skeletons and several skulls, but rarely gets much attention. It is also quite similar to Yunnanosaurus. Remains named "Gyposaurus" sinensis assigned here may be their own taxon. Lufengosaurus has sometimes been considered to be the same as Massospondylus or Yunnanosaurus, but these are both unlikely.

Anchisauria:

Taxon or Taxa: Time/Place: Comments:
Anchisaurus polyzelus Marsh, 1885 (originally Megadactylus polyzelus Hitchcock, 1865) (including Ammosaurus major Marsh, 1891) Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of Connecticut and Massachusetts (yes, substantially older than usually depicted) One of the rare New England classic dinosaurs, Anchisaurus has been named both Megadactylus and Amphisaurus, generic names that both turned out to be occupied by other things. It is based on a partial skeleton and skull, one of the first known for a classic dinosaur.
A dinosaur named Yaleosaurus coelurus (Huene, 1932, based on A. coelurus Marsh, 1891), now considered a junior synonym of Anchisaurus polyzelus, was at one time a common sight in dinosaur books. However, some material assigned to Yaleosaurus may belong to a distinct New England taxon that is a "prosauropod", not as derived as A. polyzelus.
Species from the early Jurassic of Africa (A. capensis) and China (A. sinensis) were once referred here, but now appear to be the young of other sauropodomorphs, or their own taxa (the "gyposaurs").
Longtime Connecticut neighbor Ammosaurus major appears to be an individual variant of A. polyzelus. At one time, it was considered a "coelurosaurian," back when all small theropods were "coelurosaurs," but it has since been recognized as a sauropodomorph.  Remains from Arizona which were once assigned to it appear to belong to at least one distinct taxon, probably a "massospondyl". Ammosaurus may make a comeback, though: Anchisaurus polyzelus is based on material that is not optimal, and the argument has been made to abandon it for Ammosaurus, the next name in line (see Marasuchus versus Lagosuchus. Made by the same researcher [Paul Sereno], too).
Anchisaurus
has long been considered a prosauropod, and a fairly basal one at that, but recent analysis puts near the base of Sauropoda, or a sauropod (depending on how you use the terminology).
Yunnanosaurus: Yang, 1942 Y. huangi (type) Yang, 1942 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of China Yunnanosaurus is a prosauropod based on good remains (over twenty partial skeletons and two skulls have been referred to it), yet is unaccountably obscure. Some researchers have suggested that its referred sauropod-like teeth, that closely resemble those of the macronarian sauropods Brachiosaurus and Pleurocoelus instead of the normal, leaflike teeth of most prosauropods, actually belong to an early sauropod. There may be another "yunnanosaurid" in the Norian (LTr) of France.
Y. robustus Yang, 1951 Hettangian-Sinemurian (EJ) of China Y. robustus is known from a large partial skeleton and skull.
Seitaad ruessi Sertich and Loewen, 2010 ?Pliensbachian (EJ) of Utah As of 2010, there have been three published sauropodomorphs from the Navajo Sandstone: the two from Arizona that were long thought to be Ammosaurus, and the type of Seitaad. This specimen is comparable to that of Segisaurus, the other named dinosaur body fossil from the formation: both are mostly torso and limbs. The name is a reference to a sand monster in Navajo mythology: the monster would bury its victims in sand dunes, while the dinosaur was probably buried in the collapse of a sand dune (probably already dead). One of the Arizona specimens is similar to Seitaad, but the other is distinct, indicating the presence of at least two taxa of sauropodomorphs.
Aardonyx celestae Yates, Bonnan, Neveling, Chinsamy, and Blackbeard, 2009 ?Pliensbachian (EJ) of South Africa Aardonyx is a derived basal sauropodmorph, on the cusp of going quadrupedal full-time. Its arms were heavily built and could support weight (very stocky forearms), and the hands could do some rotation, although it couldn't walk with them pointed fully forward. The skull lacked cheeks, like sauropods, but still had the narrow pointed form of basal sauropodomorphs. Aardonyx is known from two individuals from a bonebed. Interestingly, a femur from a truly quadrupedal sauropodmorph was also found in the quarry.
Leonerasaurus taquetrensis Pol, Garrido, and Cerda, 2011 EJ (probably) of Argentina Leonerasaurus is known from a partially articulated partial skeleton including a sampling of bones throughout the body (dentary and teeth, series of cervicals and dorsals, partial girdles, humerus, part of a femur, and bits and pieces). It was found in the Las Leoneras Formation (hence the name), which is usually thought to be middleish to late EJ in age, but may be closer to the Tr-J boundary, perhaps even from the LTr. Leonerasaurus was small; although the type individual, estimated at 2.5 m long, was not fully grown, it was not far from it. It had a sauropod-like sacrum.
Camelotia borealis Galton, 1985 Rhaetian (LTr) of England Based on remains once assigned to Avalonia sanfordi Seeley, 1898, this "melanorosaur" is still rather poorly known. It may be close to Melanorosaurus.
Melanorosaurus readi Haughton, 1924 early Norian (LTr) of South Africa Long confused with Euskelosaurus, this was one of the largest land animals the world had ever seen before the Jurassic. Its hips were joined by four sacral verts, one more than in the prosauropods. In the past, it has been assigned to the family Melanorosauridae, in the Prosauropoda, but new research advocates breaking up that arrangement.

Sauropoda:  This group is probably one of the most familiar of classic dinosaurs to the public, although they may not know the proper terms. They are often called "brontosaurs," (thunder reptiles), an apt if incorrect name.

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